Consider the following circuit and its directed graph. Directed graphs can represent many things. In our case though, it represent a digital circuit as shown below. Consider each node of the graph as a logical gate of the circuit. The incoming edges are input to the logic gate and outgoing edges are the output of the logic gate.

Following figure shows its directed graph. Buffer Y9 and Y10 are ignored since they were inserted to distinguish u_1 from p_00 etc. Now if we need to test this circuit for path delays, we need to enumerate the path firsts. After converting the circuit into a graph, enumeration the path is a routine problem and can be solved by using **Depth First Search** algorithm. An *edge* from one node to other shows that a *wire* exists between them. By *path* we mean this *wire* only.

The path is shown below. **dot ** Tool is used to generate this graph. Now the problem is reduced to enumerating the path between input and output. This can be done using the standard **Depth First Search (DFS). **The procedure is following.

**Partition the graph**We partition nodes of the given graph in to two sets namely and .- Clearly, $latex V_{input} \bigcup V_{output} \subset V$. We may have a trivial case in which . Clearly, the number of path in this situation is equal to the number of edges in . In our problem we are already been provided with and .
**Step 1**Start from a node . Mark this node as*used*. Initialize counter to 0. Initialize stack to keep track of path.**Step 2**Pick an edge and reach to the next connected node. Push this edge on the stack. Do it till you hit a node which belongs to . Increase counter by 1.**Step 3**Pop the stack and traceback your path. Do it till you meet a node which have an edge which has not been pushed on to the stack. When you get this node. Repeat step 2. Else go to step 4.**Step 4**Counter will give you the number of path between input node and the output nodes. If there are nodes left in , go to step 1. Else go to step 5.**Step 5**Each input node have a counter value. Add them up. This gives the total number of path in the circuit.

Now these steps can be visualized easily. We start from node **a **and traverse this graph.

In the same way, we can enumerate all the paths from input node **b **to the output nodes.

Well, we used graphviz to generate these graphs. We give these scripts.

<p style="text-align: left;">digraph G { node[fontzise = 10, width="0.4", height = "0.4", margin = 0]; edge[color=red] subgraph cluster001{ style = filled; color = lightgrey; node [style= filled, color=white] start [shape = box]; start -> a [penwidth = 4, headlabel = 0]; a -> w [label = 0]; w -> p00 [label = 0]; p00 -> u1[label = 0, headlabel="1"]; p00 -> u2 [headlabel="2"]; w -> p01; p01 -> u3[headlabel = 3]; a -> p11; p11 -> u2 [headlabel =4]; p11 -> u4 [headlabel = 5]; a -> p10; p10 -> u3 [headlabel = 6]; } subgraph cluster002{ style=filled; color=pink; edge [color = blue] u1 -> p_u1; //p_u1 -> p_p00; p_u1 -> p00; u2 -> p_u2; p_u2 -> p_p00; p_p00 -> w; /// u3 -> p_u3; p_u3 -> p_p01; p_p01 -> p_w; p_w -> a; // // u4 -> p_u4; p_u4 -> p_p11; p_p11 -> a; // } subgraph cluster004{ style=filled; color=pink; edge [color = blue] u3 -> p_u3_; p_u3_ -> p_p10_; p_p10_ -> a [headlabel = "END"]; u2 -> p_u2_; p_u2_ -> p11; } subgraph cluster004{ p00; p01; p11; p10; } subgraph cluster03{ style = filled; color = lightgrey; node [style= filled, color=white] u1; u2; u3; u4; } }

digraph G { node[fontzise = 10, width="0.4", height = "0.4", margin = 0]; edge[color=red] subgraph cluster001{ style = filled; color = lightgrey; node [style= filled, color=white] start [shape = box]; start -> b [penwidth = 4, headlabel = 0]; b -> x [label = 0]; x -> p00 [label = 0]; p00 -> u1[label = 0, headlabel="1"]; // pop p00 -> u2 [headlabel="2"];// pop x -> p10; p10 -> u3[headlabel = 3]; // pop b -> p01; p01 -> u3 [headlabel =4]; // pop b -> p11; p11 -> u2 [headlabel = 5]; // pop p11 -> u4 [headlabel = 6]; // pop } subgraph clusterPOP1{ style=filled; color=pink; edge [color = blue] u1 -> p_u1; p_u1 -> p00;// Go forward. u2 -> p_u2; p_u2 -> p_p00; p_p00 -> x; // go forward. u3 -> p_p10; p_p10 -> p_x; p_x -> b; // go forward. u3 -> p_u3; p_u3 -> p_p01; p_p01 -> b; // go forward. u4 -> p_u4; p_u4 -> p_p11; p_p11 -> b [headlabel = "EXIT"]; } subgraph clusterPOP2{ style=filled; color=pink; edge [color = blue] u2 -> p_u2_; p_u2_ -> p11; // go forward. } subgraph cluster03{ style = filled; color = lightgrey; node [style= filled, color=blue] u1; u2; u3; u4; } }